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Entitlement, belief in life as zero-sum game and subjective well-being: 42-nation study

Date: 1 January 2014 - 1 December 2015

Introduction: This project aimed at examine relationship between entitlement (active, passive, and revenge), belief in life as zero-sum game and subjective well-being (both hedonia and eudaimonia) across cultures. Currently project is closed with data from 42 countries (student samples).

Instruments: Entitlement Attitudes, Belief in Life as Zero-Sum Game Scale, Personal Well-being Index, SWLS, PANAS, MHC-SF 


1) Popular SWB scales are comparable across countries, with metric levels of invariance, allowing for study on correlates and predictors  of SWB across countries

2) PWI seems to be good supplementation for SWLS, as it allows for reliable cross-country comparisons (partial scalar invariance), in addition it allows for studying satisfaction with particular domains

3) PANAS as the most problematic scale due to: translation problems, different meaning of emotions across countries

4) MHC-SF structure: bi-factor model as recommended for cross-cultural studies, three components of SWB assumed by Keyes model better differentatied on cross-country level than on within-country level

5) Creating country rankings on SWB is possible using  SWLS, PWI, MHC-SF and PANAS (multilevel CFA indicated replication of structure both within and between-country level), however scores of MHC-SF and PANAS are more biased than SWLS and PWI


  1. Różycka-Tran, J., Jurek, P., Olech, M., Piotrowski, J., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. (2018). A Warrior Society: Data from 30 Countries show that Belief in a Zero-Sum Game is related to Military Expenditure and Low Civil Liberties. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02645

  2. Rogoza, R., Rózycka-Tran, J., Truong, K.H., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., Piotrowski, J. (2018). Psychometric properties of the MHC-SF: An integration of the existing measurement approaches. Journal of Clinical Psychology, online first.

  3. Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M.,, Piotrowski, J., Osin, E., (…), Maltby, J. (2018). The Mental Health Continuum – Short Form: The structure and application for cross-cultural studies – a 38 nation study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 1034-1052. 

  4. Różycka-Tran, J., Jurek, P., Olech, M., Piotrowski, J., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. (2017). Measurement invariance of Belief in Life as Zero-Sum Game in 36 countries.International Journal of Psychology, online first. DOI: 10.1002/ijop.12470

  5. Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., Piotrowski, J., Cieciuch, J., Adams, B., Osin, E. (...) Maltby, J. (2017). Measurement invariance of Personal Well-being Index (PWI-8) across 26 countries. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18, 1697-1711. 

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