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Collective narcissism and a concept of a “just war”: Cross-cultural perspective
Date: Autumn 2022 


   We have three main research goals: to examine the (1) role of individual-level factors in adopting beliefs in just war (reasons and aims for it); (2) universality (vs. cultural specificity) of beliefs related to just war (reasons and means); and (3) macro-level factors moderating the concept of just war across national and religious backgrounds.

To examine the concept of just war we use three-dimensional model of beliefs in just war, validated in Poland: (1) just war – restricted view on reasons and means of war, as self-defensive and targeted only toward military goals; (2) utilitarian war – unrestricted view on war reasons, accepting war as a way of intergroup conflicts resolutions;  (3) dirty war – unrestricted view on war means, accepting any means useful in defeating the enemy.

    -> Project description download

Aim of project:
   The current project focuses on the concept of just war from political and cross-cultural psychology perspectives, addressing the roles of personality, beliefs, and cultural factors (Lopez & Johnson, 2020). The concept of just war refers both to reasons for war and the way the war is conducted (Coates, 2018; McMahan, 2005; Watkins, 2020). Therefore, we will examine the extent to which people of different nationalities and religious background perceive the war as justified, while testing the role of individual-level and macro-level factors in shaping these perceptions. To explain the possible psychological underpinnings of just war, we focus on collective narcissism (CN); right-wing authoritarianism [RWA],  religiosity and spirituality. We will examine agentic/communal CN in conjunction with national and religious identifications, as particularly relevant for intergroup conflict (Böhm et al., 2020). Warfare studies typically address three levels of analysis (Lopez & Johnson, 2020). The international level refers to the policy-related factors or distribution of power, the domestic level refers to state-related factors, like kind of regime, while the individual level focuses on such factors as beliefs, personality, or culture (Lopez & Johnson, 2020). The concept of just war refers both to reasons for the war and the way it is conducted (Walzer, 1977). In the current project we plan to validate three-dimensional model of just war beliefs described above. We supplement self-report part by an index of extremal war means, rejected by most participants, like using tortures, nuclear weapon or targeting civilians in aim to intimidate the opponent.
If you are interested in joining to the project please contact with project manager:


Just war beliefs (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2022) – 17-tem scale with three factors supplemented by 4-item “outliers” including extremal war means (like using nuclear weapon or targeting civilians).

Collective narcissism (religious and national): the CNS (Golec de Zavala et al., 2009), the CCNI (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2021).

Collective identification: brief Social Identification Scale (Cameron, 2004); identity scale of CSES (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) –national and religious

Personality: normal: BFI-S (Lang et al., 2015); dark: Dirty Dozen Dark Triad (Jonason & Webster, 2010); NARQ-S (Leckelt et al., 2018); Narcissistic Sanctity and Heroism Questionnaire (Żemojtel-Piotrowska et al., 2022); 4-item sadism (abbreviated version from SD4; Plouffe et al., 2022). 

Political personality: 9-item KSA-3 (Nießen et al., 2019), SDO-7 (Ho et al., 2015)

Religiosity: 9-item religiosity scale (Lavric & Flere, 2008).

Spirituality: 13-item universality and connectedness part of STS (Piedmont, 1999; 2010).

The list of collaborators  (click to download)

 “Just-war” Cross-cultural Research Group


Leaders: Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Jarosław Piotrowski,

Cross-Cultural Psychology Centre, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw

Statistical team:

Maksim Rudnev, University of Waterloo

Artur Sawicki, University of Gdansk


Agim Mamuti, Mother Theresa University, North Macedonia


Salima Hamouda, University of Biskra, Algeria

Habib Tiliouine, University of Oran, Algeria


Katherine Gundolf, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Austria


Luis Jaume, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina


Narine Khachatryan, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia


Mladen Adamovic, King's College London, United Kingdom


Rumana Aktar, Department of Psychology, University of Chittagong

Mohammad Ifaz Uddin, Department of Psychology, University of Chittagong

Md. Imran Hossain, Department of Psychology, University of Chittagong


Alain van Hiel, Ghent University, Belgium

Vassilis Saroglou, University of Louvain, Belgium

Bosna & Hercegovina

Ognjen Riđić, International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Emil Knezović, International University of Sarajevo (IUS), Bosnia and Herzegovina

Goran RiđićUniversity of Economics for Management (HDWM), Germany


Valdiney V. Gouveia, Federal University of Paraiba, Paraiba, Brazil


Nur Amali Aminnuddin, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei


Sonya Dragova-Koleva, New Bulgarian University, Sofya, Bulgaria


Rishad Habib, Ted Rogers School of Management, Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada


Anna Wlodarczyk, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile


Fanli Jia, Seton Hall University, NJ, USA

Maxim Likhanov, Beijing Normal University, China


Marta Martín-Carbonell, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Colombia

Yuli Suarez Colorado, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Colombia


Doroteja Pavan Jukić, University of Zagreb, School of Medicine, Croatia

Tomislav Jukić, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University, Croatia

Benjamin Mrkušić, MBA,  International University of Sarajevo (IUS)


Martina Klicperova-Baker, Czech Academy of Sciences, Praha, Czech Republic


Einar Baldvin Baldursson, Aalborg University, Denmark


Aitor Larzabal Fernandez, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador-Ambato, Ecuador


Walaa Labib M. Eldesoki, Department of Education and Psychology, faculty of Science and Arts in Qurayyat, Al Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia & Department of Psychology, faculty of Arts, Menoufia University, Egypt


Kadi Liik, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia


Gashaw Tesfa, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia


Rasmus Mannerström, University of Helsinki, Finland


Magali Clobert,  Université de Caen Normandie


Maia Mestvirishvili, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia


Matthias Burghardt, University of Konstanz, Germany

Goran Ridic, University of Economics for Management (HDWM), Germany


Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,

Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kumasi, Ghana


Delia Stefenel, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania


Monika Kovacs, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary


Naved Iqbal, Jama Milia Islamia University, New Delhi, India

Shanmukh V. Kamble, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India


Rahkman Ardi, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia


Fatemeh Zand, Department of Psychology, Institute of Higher Education Non-profit of Tolo Mehr, Qom, Iran

Somayeh Zand, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy


Zana Hasan Babakr, Soran University, Iraq


Mabelle Kretchner, , Reichman University, Herzliya, Israel

Uri Lifshin, Reichman University, Herzliya, Israel


Mario Bonato, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

Calogero Lo Destro, Università degli studi Niccolò Cusano, Italy

Emanuela Gritti, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Università di Urbino Carlo Bo, Italy

Peter K. Jonason, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Poland & Padova University, Italy


Joonha Park, NUCB School, Nagoya, Japan


Adil Samekin, M. Narikbayev KAZGUU University, Astana, Kazakhstan

Aidos Bolatov, Astana Medical University, Astana, Kazakhstan


Dzintra Iliško, Daugavpils University, Daugavpils, Latvia


Tadas Vadvilavicius, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania


Marilyn Clark, University of Malta, Malta

Olga Bogolyuobova, Leiden University, the Netherlands


Rogelio Puente Diaz, Anáhuac University, Mexico

Alejandra Del Carmen Dominguez Espinosa, Universidad Iberoamericana Ciudad de México, Mexico


Sandesh Dhakal, Tribhuvan University, Nepal


Charles S. Umeh, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

Olusola Ayandele, The Polytechnic, Ibadan

North America (Canada/USA)

Muhammed Bilgehan Aytaç, Aksaray Üniversitesi

North Macedonia

Agim Mamuti, Mother Theresa University, North Macedonia


Najma Malik, University of Sargodha

Sadia Malik, University of Sargodha


Jano Ramos-Diaz, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Privada del Norte, Lima, Perú


Jesus Alonso Datu, The Education University of Hong Kong


Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Poland

Jarosław Piotrowski, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Poland

Artur Sawicki, University of Gdansk, Poland

Bartłomiej Nowak, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Poland


Christin‐Melanie Vauclair, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal

Elena Piccinelli, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), CIS-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal


Dmitry Grigoryev

Albina Gallyamova


Mohammed Salah Hassan, University of Malaya


Sergiu Bălțătescu, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania


Veljko Jovanovic, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia


Norman Lee, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Bryan Choi, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Robert Tomšík, Výskumný ústav detskej psychológie a patopsychológie (VÚDPaP)


Begona Espejo, University of Valencia, Spain

Irene Checca, University of Valencia, Spain


Matthias Burghardt, University of Konstanz, Germany

Tabea Hässler, University of Zurich, Switzerland


Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand

The Netherlands

Kees van den Bos, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands

Anne Janssen, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands

The United Kingdom

Chanki Moon, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK

John Maltby, University of Leicester, UK

Kostas Papageorgiu, Queen’s University of Belfast, UK

Constantine Sedikides, University of Southampton, UK

The United States

Heather Kumove, University of Massachusetts Amherst; Reichman University

Alison J. Marganski, Le Moyne College

Richard G. Cowden, Harvard University, Boston, MA, United States

Trinidad & Tobago

Troy Smith, The Trinidad and Tobago University


Emrah Özsoy, Sakarya University, Turkey

Emre Oruc, University of Ankara, Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Zahir Vally, United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates


Illia Yahiiaiev, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine

Karine Malysheva, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine


Pablo Perez de Leon, Universidad Católica del Uruguay Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga


Kiều Thị Thanh Trà, Ho Chi Minh City University of Education, Vietnam

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